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References & Glossary



Literature cited
Personal Correspondences

Glossary of Terms



Agriculture and Agri_food Canada (AAFC). 1997. Biodiversity in Agriculture: Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada's Action Plan. AAFC: Ottawa, ON.

Atlas Florae Europaeae

Bider, J. R. and S. Matte. 1996. The Atlas of Amphibians and Reptiles of Quebec. St. Lawrence Valley Natural History Society and the Ministère de l"environnement et de la faune, direction de la faune et des habitats: Québec, QC. 106p.

Biodiversity Science Assessment Team. 1994. Biodiversity in Canada: a science assessment for Environment Canada. Environment Canada, Ottawa. 215p.

Boisseau, G. et B. Gauthier. 1998. Répertoire des aires naturelles protégées et conservées au Québec. Ministère de l'Environnement et de la Faune, Direction de la conservation et du patrimoine écologique: Québec, QC. Unpublished report. 166pp.

Burt, W.H. and Grossenheider, R.P. 1976. Peterson Field Guides: Mammals. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 289 pages.

Bush, G.L. 1969. Sympatric host race formation and speciation in frugivorous flies of the genus Rhagoletis (Diptera, Tephritidae). Evolution 23: 237-251.

Caras, R. 1967. North American Mammals. Meredith Press, New York, NY. 578 pp.

Chadwick, D.H. 1993. Seeking Meanings. DEFENDERS Magazine Winter 1992/1993.

Cronon, W, ed. 1995. Uncommon Ground. W.W. Norton and Company, New York, NY. 561 pp.

Danks, H.V. 1997. Assessing insect biodiversity--without wasting your time. Global Biodiversity, 7:17-21

Dobson, A.P. 1996. Conservation and Biodiversity. Scientific American Library: New York, NY. 264 pp.

Ehrenfeld, D. 1972. Conserving Life on Earth. Oxford University Press: New York, NY

Environment Canada. 1998. Caring for Canada's Biodiversity: Canada's First National Report to the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Public Works and Government Services Canada: Ottawa, ON.

Environment Canada. 1997. Conserving Wildlife Diversity: Implementing the Canadian Biodiversity Strategy. Minister of Supply and Services: Ottawa, ON.

Environment Canada. 1996. The State of Canada's Environment. Environment Canada: Ottawa, ON.

Environment Canada. 1994. Canadian Biodiversity Strategy: Canadian response to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Report of The Federal-rovincial-Territorial Biodiversity Working Group. Environment Canada, Ottawa. 60 p.

Erlich, P.R. & Erlich, A.H. 1992. The value of biodiversity. Ambio 21(3): 219-226

Erlich, P.R. & Erlich, A.H. 1981. Extinction: The causes and the Consequences of the Disappearance of Species. Ballantyne Books: New York, NY

Fisher, R.A., A.S. Corbet, and C.B. Williams. 1943. The relationship between the number of species and the number of individuals in a random sample of an animal population. Journal of Animal Ecology 12: 42-58

Gaulthier, J. & Y. Aubry. 1996. Atlas of the Breeding Birds of Québec. Province of Québec Society for the Protection of Birds and the Canadian Wildlife Service, Québec Region: Montréal, QC. 1302 pp.

Gause, G.F. 1935. Experimental demonstrations of Volterra's periodic oscillation in the number of animals. Journal of Experimental Biology 12: 44-48

Haila, Y. & Margules, C.R. 1996. Survey research in conservation biology. Ecography. 19:323-331

Hummel, M., ed. Protecting Canada's Endangered Spaces. Key Porter Books, Toronto, ON

Huston, M. A. 1996. Biological Diversity: The coexistence of species on changing landscapes. Cambridge University Press: New York, NY. 681 pp.

Hutchinson, G.E. 1961. The paradox of the plankton. American Naturalist 95: 137-145

IUCN. 1994. Guidelines for Protected Area Management Categories. CNPPA with the guidance of WCMC. IUCN: Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. 261pp.

Kavanaugh, K. & T. Iacobelli. 1995. A protected areas gap analysis methodology: Planning for the conservation of biodiversity. World Wildlife Fund Canada Discussion Paper. Toronto, ON. 68 pp.

Kimball, J.W. 1986. Biology, 5th ed. The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc.: Don Mills, ON. 972 p.

Leopold, A. 1970 [1949]. A Sand County Almanac. Sierra Club: San Francisco, CA

MacArthur, R.H. and E.O. Wilson. 1963. An equilibrium theory of insular zoogeography. Evolution 17:373-387

McAllister, D.E. 1994. Tools for conserving biodiversity: inventories, biosystematics, museums, TAP, RAP, GAP, ETAP and ATI. Global Biodiversity 4(2): 16-21

Miller, G.T., Jr. 1992. Living in the Environment, 7th ed. Wadsworth Publishing Company: Belmont, CA. 705p.

Miller, R.R.; J.D. Williams & J.E. Williams. 1989. Extinctions of North American fishes during the past century. Fisheries 14: 22-38

Ministère de l'Environnement et de la Faune du Québec (MEF). 1996. Convention on biological diversity: Québec's Implementation Strategy. Gouvernement du Québec, Ministère de l'Environnement et de la Faune. 114pp.

Ministère de l'Environnement et de la Faune du Québec (MEF) 1996. Quebec Biodiversity Action Plan. Gouvernement du Québec, Ministère de l'Environnement et de la Faune. 63pp.

Morin, R.1997. Atlas des Micromammifères de la Province du Québec. Ministère de l'Environnement et de la Faune du Québec, Direction de la faune et des habitats, Service de la faune terrestre. 22p.

Myers, N. 1983. A Wealth of Wild Species: Storehouse for Human Welfare. Westview Press, Boulder, CO.

Nash, R. 1967. Wilderness and the American Mind. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.

Natural Resources Canada - Canadian Forestry Service. 1997. Biodiversity in the Forest: The Canadian Forest Service Three-year Action Plan. Natural Resources Canada: Ottawa, ON.

Noss, R. 1995. Maintaining Ecological Integrity in Representative Reserve Networks. A WWF-Canada/ WWF-US Discussion Paper. Toronto, ON

Palmer, M.W. 1994. Variation in species richness: towards a unification of hypotheses. Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 29:511-530

Patalas, K. 1990. Diversity of th zooplankton in Canadian lakes as a function of climate. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 24: 360-368.

Pough, F.H., R.M. Andrews, J.E. Cadle, M.L. Crump, A.H. Savitzky and K.D. Wells. 1998. Herpetology. Prentice Hall of Canada, Inc.: Toronto, ON. 577 p.

Prescott, J. and R. Caron. 1982. Mammifères du Québec et de l'est du Canada. Éditions France-Amérique, Montréal, QC.

Québec (Province). 1993. Etat de l'environnement au Québec. Ministère de l'environnement. Guérin: Montréal, QC. 560p.

Reid, R. 1996 Endangered Spaces: The science behind a national network of protected areas. World Wildlife Fund Canada, Toronto, ON. 8 pp.

Ricciardi, A. 1998. The exotic species problem and freshwater conservation. Wild Earth 8(1): 44-49

Ricklefs, R.E. 1990. Ecology 3rd ed. W.H. Freeman and Company, New York, NY

Roberts-Pichette, P. 1994. Framework for Monitering Biodiversity Change Within the Ecological Monitoring and Assessment Network in Canada. Ecological Monitoring Coordinating Office, Canadian Centre for Inland Water: Burlington, ON.

Rosenzweig, M.L. 1995. Species Diversity in Space and Time. Cambridge University Press, New York, NY.

Sanderson, I.T. 1951. How to know the American mammals. Little, Brown and Company, New York, NY. 164 p.

Sarkar, S. 1999. Wilderness preservation and biodiveristy conservation - keeping divergent goals distinct. BioScience 49(5): 405-412.

Scott, W.B. and E.J. Crossman. Freshwater fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Bulletin 184: Ottawa, ON.

Smith, T.M. and D.L. Urban. 1988. Scale and resolution of forest structural pattern. Vegetario 74: 143-50

Soulé, M.E., ed. Conservation Biology. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA. 584 pp.

Statistics Canada. 1994. Human Activity and the Environment. Cat. No. 11-509E. Minister of Industry, Science and Technology, Ottawa, ON. 300pp.

Takacs, D. 1996. The Idea of Biodiversity: Philosophies of Paradise. The Johns Hopkins University Press: Baltimore, MD. 393 pp.

Thibault, M.H. 1995. Le Québec statistique - 1995. Bureau de la statistique du Québec, Publications du Québec, 60th ed. Ste-Foy, QC. 820pp.

Whittaker, R.H. 1960. Vegetation of the Siskiyou Mountains, Oregon and California. Ecological Monographs 30: 279-338

Whittaker, R.H. 1967. Gradient Analysis of vegetation. Biological Reviews 42: 207-264

Whittaker, R.H. 1972. Evolution and measurement of species diversity. Taxon 21: 231-251

Williams, P.H.; Humphries, C.J. & Gaston, K.J. 1994a. Centres of seed-plant diversity: the family way. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Biological Sciences. 256:67-70

Williams, P.H.; Gaston, K.J. & Humphries, C.J. 1994b. Do conservationists and molecular biologists value differences between organisms in the same way? Biodiversity Letters. 2:67-78

Wilson, E.O. 199?. Only humans can halt the worst wave of extinctions since the dinosaurs died. Essay found on-line at the Alberta Special Places Website:

World Wildlife Fund (WWF). 1997. Regard sur Québec (Hiver 1996-1997). Le Bulletin du WWF sur le rétablissement des espèces. Les Editions Franc-Vert, Montréal, Québec. 8 pp.

WWF. 1998. Endangered Spaces Progress Report 1997-98. WWF Canada. Toronto, Ontario.


Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada:

Birds of Quebec Infopage:

Canada MAB website:

Canadian Biodiversity Information Network (CBIN):

Canadian Endangered Species Coalition homepage:

Canadian Environmental Protection Act homepage:

Canadian Forestry Service:

Canadian Nature Federation Homepage:

Canadian Wildlife Service (CWS):

Centre des Données sur le Patrimoine Naturel du Québec

CITES homepage:

Conservation International website:

Convention on Biological Diversity Website:


Defenders of Wildlife:

DFO communique, Sept 25, 1995

Ecoroute Website:

EMAN (Ecological Monitoring and Assessment Network):

Environment Canada page on National Wildlife Areas and Migratory Bird Sanctuaries:

MEF website:

MEF Ecological Reserves:

MEF maps of ecological reserves:

The National History Museum, London

National Park System Plan:

Natural Resources Canada:

The Nature Conservancy - Natural Heritage Data Centers:

The Negative Population Growth group:

Parks Canada Website - list:

Parks Canada website - UNESCO:

Les Publications du Québec:

Quebec Biodiversity Strategy:

Saint-Lawrence Action Plan Website:

Sierra Club of Canada Rio Report Card:

St. Lawrence Vision 2000 website:

Sierra Club:

Wetlands Network:

WAPPRIITA homepage:

World Conservation Monitoring Centre website:

WWF Canada Endangered Spaces Report 98:

Zero Population Growth:

Personal Correspondence

Graham Bell, Director, Redpath Museum, pers comm

Dr. Amanda Vincent, Professor, McGill University, unpublished lecture notes, 1998

Gregory Thompson, Senior Policy Analyst, Biodiversity Convention Office, Environment Canada. pers comm

Zinger, Director - Quebec, World Wildlife Fund Canada, pers comm



Ecological Integrity




Enduring features

The capability of a protected area to maintain and support assemblages of wildlife and natural communities in a manner which ensures that their composition, structure and function are comparable to those of similar ecosystems of the region.

area of the Earth's surface representative of large, general ecological units characterized by interactive and adjusting biotic and abiotic factors

part of an ecoregion that is characterized by a combination of regional ecological factors such as climate, physiography, soils, vegetation, fauna and land use.

collections of geological, morphological, and climatological features that make that region what it is.

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